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Friday, December 31, 2010

CS610 Assignment 3

CS 610 Computer Networks
Assignment # 03
Fall 2010
         Total Marks = 20
Deadline 
Your assignment must be uploaded / submitted before or on January 5, 2011
Upload Instructions
Please view the assignment submission process document provided to you by the
Virtual University.

Rules for Marking
Please note that your assignment will not be graded if:
•  It is submitted after due date
•  The file you uploaded does not open
•  The file you uploaded is copied from someone else or from internet
•  It is in some format other than .doc

Objective
The assignment has been designed to enable you to develop the:
•  Understanding about routing algorithms

Note: Material that is an exact copy from handouts or internet would be graded
zero marks. Your solution should consist of the material found through different
sources and written in your own words.

Assignment Statements:
a). Summarize the difference between classful IP address and classless IP
address in tabular format. 
(Your answer should not increase more than one page)
(10 marks)

b.) Show your IP address by using DOS command “ipconfig” and answer the
 following.         (2 x 5 marks) 
(i)  Show your IP address and subnet mask
(ii)  Convert the IP address and Subnet mask into binary representation.
(iii)  What is the class of your IP address in classful scheme and why?
(iv)  Find your host number and network number in classful and classless
scheme, also gives the reason to your answers.
(v) Given the address 23.56.7.91, find the beginning address i.e.
network address 


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Solution


How Classless and Classful Routing protocol operate in Routing?


Classful
Routing protocols do not carry subnet mask information on their routing updates. This makes them unsuitable for hierarchical addressing that require Variable Length Subnet Mask (VLSM) and discontiguous network. Classless routing protocols do carry subnet mask information on their routing updates. 

RIP v1 and IGRP are classful routing protocols. RIP v2, EIGRP, OSPF, and BGP are classless routing protocol. 

When running a classful routing protocol on a network, make sure you use the same subnet mask everywhere. Otherwise, routing black holes can occur. 

Classless 
Routing protocols extend the standard Class A, B, or C IP addressing scheme by using a subnet mask or mask length to indicate how routers must interpret an IP network ID. Classless routing protocols include the subnet mask along with the IP address when advertising routing information. Subnet masks representing the network ID are not restricted to those defined by the address classes, but can contain a variable number of high-order bits. Such subnet mask flexibility enables you to group several networks as a single entry in a routing table, significantly reducing routing overhead. Classless routing protocols includes RIP v2 and OSPF, Border Gateway Protocol version 4 (BGP4) and Intermediate System to Intermediate System (IS-IS).


Q:

What is the difference between classless and Classful IP address?


Your default class addresses are Class A 0-127, Class B - 128-191 Class C - 192-223 for the 1st octet values 

Classful IP addresses are IP addresses that follow this standard subnet ranges for class A, B, C so a Classful router protocol like ripv1 will always assume that the address 172.16.1.2 has a subnet mask of 255.255.0.0 even if you want it to have a subnet of 255.255.255.0 so on a Classful router protocol 172.16.1.2 will always have the range 172.16.0.0 - 172.16.255.255 (because the value 172 in the 1st octet falls in the Class B range of 128-191 and class B addresses have the subnet mask set to 255.255.0.0)

Classless IP addresses mean that the address range is determined by the subnet mask and hence the same address 172.16.1.2 255.255.255.0 will now be looked at as having its range as 172.16.1.0 - 255 because 255.255.255.0 corresponds to that range. P.S. Rip was updated to support this (ripv2)

Classful Vs Classless Address
Hello friends in this post i am again going to tell you some more interesting concepts of networking. In this post i am going to tell you what the difference between classfull and classless address is.

 [class1.jpg]


Classful addressing:
In the Classful addressing system all the IP addresses that are available are divided into the five classes A,B,C,D and E, in which class A,B and C address are frequently used because class D is for Multicast and is rarely used and class E is reserved and is not currently used. Each of the IP address belongs to a particular class that's why they are Classful addresses. Earlier this addressing system did not have any name but when classless addressing system came into existence then it is named as Classful addressing system. The main disadvantage of Classful addressing is that it limited the flexibility and number of addresses that can be assigned to any device. One of the major disadvantages of Classful addressing is that it does not send subnet information but it will send the complete network address. The router will supply its own subnet mask based on its locally configured subnets. As long as you have the same subnet mask and the network is contiguous, you can use subnets of a Classful network address.

[classless.gif]


Classless Addressing:
Classless addressing system is also known as CIDR (Classless Inter-Domain Routing).Classless addressing is a way to allocate and specify the Internet addresses used in inter-domain routing more flexibly than with the original system of Internet Protocol (IP) address classes. What happened in Classful addressing is that if any company needs more than 254 host machines but far fewer than the 65,533 host addresses then the only option for the company is to take the class B address. Now suppose company needs only 1000 IP addresses for its host computers then in this (65533-1000=64533) IP addresses get wasted. For this reason, the Internet was, until the arrival of CIDR, running out of address space much more quickly than necessary. CIDR effectively solved the problem by providing a new and more flexible way to specify network addresses in routers. A CIDR network address looks like this:

192.30.250.00/15

The "192.30.250.00" is the network address itself and the "15" says that the first 15 bits are the network part of the address, leaving the last 17 bits for specific host addresses. One more advantage of classless addressing is that classless protocol sends subnet information. This allows you to create discontiguous networks with any given Classful network address.
         

                              

Monday, December 27, 2010

STA630 Quiz No 2


STA630 Online Quiz#2...Lecture#1 to 25...1st Quiz...Solved..

Question # 1 of 15 ( Start time: 01:09:24 AM )  Total Marks: 1 
If a researcher was studying the use of various instructional approaches to the "multiple intelligences" of his students, he is likely to be
conducting which type of research? 
Select correct option: 
 Basic
 Applied
 Evaluation
 Grounded theory

Question # 2 of 15 ( Start time: 01:10:00 AM )  Total Marks: 1 
If a measure is consistent over multiple occasions, it has: 
Select correct option: 

 Inter-rater reliability
 Construct validity
 Internal validity
 Test-retest reliability
    
Question # 3 of 15 ( Start time: 01:11:32 AM )  Total Marks: 1 
Why do you need to review the existing literature? 
Select correct option: 

 To give your dissertation a proper academic appearance, with lots of references 
 Because without it, you could never reach the required word-count 
 To find out what is already known about your area of interest
 To help in your general studying

Question # 4 of 15 ( Start time: 01:12:12 AM )  Total Marks: 1 
All of the following are true about theories, except; 
Select correct option: 

 They organize and summarize existing knowledge about a topic.
 They are tentative until the facts prove them true.
 They provide possible explanations for the phenomenon under study
 They lead to testable hypotheses through the process of deduction.

Question # 5 of 15 ( Start time: 01:13:02 AM )  Total Marks: 1 
Quantitative social researchers rarely claim to have established causality because: 
Select correct option: 

 They are more concerned with publishing the results of their reliability tests. 
 They do not believe that this is an appropriate goal to be striving for.
 They keep forgetting which of the variables they have manipulated.
 They tend to use cross-sectional designs, which produce only correlations. 

Question # 6 of 15 ( Start time: 01:14:12 AM )  Total Marks: 1 
“Skepticism” is a norm of science. It is better explained by which of the following statement? 
Select correct option: 

 Combining the previous knowledge
 Critical reading of the previous researches
 Providing the proper references of qouted text
 Locating research reports in libraries 

Question # 7 of 15 ( Start time: 01:15:12 AM )  Total Marks: 1 
Which of the following provides a solid basis foundation for the theoretical framework? 
Select correct option: 

 Survey
 Literature Review
 Experiment
 Referencing

Question # 8 of 15 ( Start time: 01:15:54 AM )  Total Marks: 1 
------------------surveys are more impersonal than face-to-face interviews. 
Select correct option: 

 Mail
 Recorded Interview 
 Focus group
 Telephone
    
Question # 9 of 15 ( Start time: 01:17:01 AM )  Total Marks: 1 
Which of the following is not a feature of theoretical framework? 
Select correct option: 

 Making an inventory of variables
 Specify the direction of relationship
 Presenting findings
 Making an inventory of propositions

Question # 10 of 15 ( Start time: 01:17:40 AM )  Total Marks: 1 
In _________ definition, a concept is explained in terms of other concepts. 
Select correct option: 

 Operational definition
 Working definition
 Theoretical definition
 None of the given options
     
Question # 11 of 15 ( Start time: 01:18:29 AM )  Total Marks: 1 
To explain, predict, and/or control phenomena are the goal of---------------------- 
Select correct option: 

 Tradition
 Inductive logic
 Deductive logic
  The scientific method

Question # 12 of 15 ( Start time: 01:19:08 AM )  Total Marks: 1 
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a good research topic? 
Select correct option: 

 It is ethical.
 It can be investigated through the collection and analysis of data.
 It focuses on a philosophical or ethical issue.
 It is theoretically or practically significant.

 Question # 13 of 15 ( Start time: 01:19:47 AM )  Total Marks: 1 
Which of the following is a concept? 
Select correct option: 

 Leadership.
 Total Quality Management.
 Human Resource Management.
 All of the given options

Question # 14 of 15 ( Start time: 01:20:14 AM )  Total Marks: 1 
The most critical areas of an article to read is; 
Select correct option: 

 Results section
 Introduction
 Abstract
 Limitations

Question # 15 of 15 ( Start time: 01:20:58 AM )  Total Marks: 1 
Quantitative researcher's preoccupation with generalization is an attempt to: 
Select correct option: 

 Develop the law like findings of the natural sciences. 
 Boost their chances of publication. 
 Enhance the internal validity of their research. 
 Demonstrate the complex techniques of statistical analysis. 



               

CS615

Software Project Management
Assignment # 03
Fall 2010 
Marks: 20
Due Date   
Your assignment must be uploaded before or on 03rd
 January 2011.
Uploading instructions:
Please view the Assignment Submission Process document provided to you by
the Virtual University for uploading assignments.
•  Assignment should be in .doc format.
•  Save your assignment with your ID (e.g. bx020200786.doc).
•  Assignment submission through email is highly discouraged.


Rules for Marking:
It should be clear that your assignment will not get any credit if:
•  The assignment is submitted after due date.
•  The submitted assignment file is corrupted.
•  The assignment is copied.
Note:
Your answer must follow the below given specifications. You will be assigned zero
marks if you do not follow these instructions.
•   Font style: “Times New Roman”
•   Font color: “Black”
•   Font size: “12”
•  Bold for heading only.
•  Font in Italic is not allowed at all.
•  No formatting or bullets are allowed to use.
Assignment submission instructions:
Your Assignment should be a well formatted word document. Upload your assignment in
word format (ID.doc) as (bx020200786.doc).
Assignment:
Question no. 1:  What do you understand by the term “Seven Tools for Quality
Management (QM)”?  Why “Seven Tools” are used the in QM?

Question no. 2: What would you understand by the role of People in Software Quality
Assurance (SQA)? Give a Comparison of SQA & the CMM?
 

Note: Your answer must be precise and to the point.

     Solution will be uploaded soon..


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Solution





NAME: YASIR JAVAED
VU ID: MC090200982
Software Project Management
Assignment # 03


Question No. 1: 
What do you understand by the term “Seven Tools for Quality Management (QM)”?  Why “Seven Tools” are used the in QM?

First of all I define what quality is. The definitions of quality depend on the function of the people defining it. Clients have a hard time to defining quality but all customers don’t believe when ever they see in practically. There is no single common explanation of quality. Some people think quality as performance to standards. Others people think it as meeting the customer’s needs or satisfying the customer.
The seven tools of quality management (QM) are as bellow.

Cause and Effect Diagrams:
Cause and effect diagrams are graphic representations that recognize possible reason for particular quality problems. They are often called fishbone diagrams because they look like the bones of a fish. In diagram the head of fish is the quality problem. The diagram is draw so spine of the fish attaches the head to the probable reason of the problem. These reasons could be associated to the machines, workers, measurement, suppliers, and materials. Each of these possible causes can then have smaller bones that show specific issues that relate to each cause. Cause and effect diagrams are problem solving tools commonly used by quality control teams. Specific causes of problems can be explored through brainstorming. The development of a cause-and-effect diagram requires the team to think through all the possible causes of poor quality.

Flowchart:
A flowchart is a structural or procedural diagram of the progression of steps involved in an operation or process. It provides a physical tool that is easy to use and understandable. In the easy word user friendly. By considering the steps involved in an operation or process, everyone develops a clear picture of how the operation works and where problems could occur.

Checklists:
Checklist is an inventory of general faults and the number of detect incidence of these fault. It is a simple yet successful fact judgment tool that allows the worker to collect exact information about the defects observed. It is obvious that the main problem is break material. This means that the plant needs to spotlight on this specific problem. Checklist can also be used to focus on other magnitude such as location or time. In this way we can separate the location of the particular fault and then focus on correcting the problem.



Control charts:
A control chart is very important quality control tool. These charts are used to assess whether a process is operating within expected relation to some deliberate value such as weight, width, or volume. When the production process is operating within prospect we says that all is in control. To assess whether or not a process is in control, we regularly measure the changeable of interest and plot it on a control chart. The chart has a line down the centre indicating the average value of the variable we are measuring. Above and below the centre line are two lines, called the upper control limit (UCL) and the lower control limit (LCL). As long as the observed values fall within the upper and lower control limits, the process is in control and there is no difficulty with quality. When a measured observation falls outside of these limits, there is a problem.

Scatter Diagrams:
Scatter diagrams are graphs that show how two uneven are associated to one another. They are mainly useful in sense the amount of correlation or the amount of linear association between two variables. Two variables could also be correlated negatively that a raise in one of the variables is linked with a reduce in the other. The better the quantity of correlation, the more linear is the observations in the scatter diagram. On the other side the more scattered the observations in the diagram, the less correlation exists between the variables.

Pareto Analysis:
Pareto analysis is a method used to recognize quality problems based on their level of importance. The logic behind Pareto analysis is that only a few quality problems are important. The system was named after Vilfredo Pareto. In 19th century Italian economist who concludes that only a small percentage of people controlled most of the wealth. This theory called the 80–20 rule and has been extended too many parts. In quality management the reason behind Pareto’s principle is that most quality problems are an effect of only a few reasons. The scam is to recognize these reasons. Command based on the percentage of defects each has caused. Percentage of defects can be calculate from the count and placed in a chart.

Histograms:
A histogram is a plan that shows the occurrence allocation of observed standards of a variable. We can see from the plan what type of distribution a particular variable displays, such as whether it has a normal distribution and whether the distribution is symmetrical.

Use of Quality Tools:
QM places a great compact of liabilities on all workers. If employees are to recognize and correct quality problems they need good training. They need to realize how to calculate quality by using a variety of quality control tools how to interpret findings and how to correct problems. Quality tools can be used to estimate the suitability of product quality and monitor product quality from individual suppliers.


Question No. 2:
What would you understand by the role of People in Software Quality Assurance (SQA)? Give a Comparison of SQA & the CMM?

Solution:
             SQA is not concerned managers and all team members only. It also impact from which is not directly involved in it. But the all SQA team members are also same important in there places also. So it is very broader impact element.

Top Management
The top management is not directly involved in SQA but its very important group of peoples which is biggest stack holder also. So top management is always in touch the SQA team and make sure that all member of SQA is right focused to achieve SQA.
Top management is also providing full support and good managerial functions apply.

Software Configuration Manger (SCM)
In the good controlled software development environment the SCM identifying / tracking and controlling the project. In the other sense the SCM is the accountant of the software project which audit and manages the accounts. SCM also the responsible of the all projects backups. The most important duty of the SCM is to create the Users and provide the custom access rights.

Developers
Its fact that developers takes non direct role in SQA but it does not mean that developers not working with SQA. Software organize is not about testing but guarantee that the process of software progress is according the industry standard. SQA is not component of the improvement team because they are the supervision groups that make sure every step in software development are according to plan.

Saturday, December 18, 2010

Prize Bond List 200/= Rs Draw 15-12-2010

               
                                     
DRAW OF Rs.200/- PRIZE BOND
                                          HELD AT HYDERABAD
Draw No.: 44
Series : COMMON DRAW                                        Date : 15/12/2010
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
First Prize of Rs. 750,000/-
402087
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Second Prize of Rs.250,000/- Each
344173          409174          567973          613229          910320
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
(2394 Prizes of Rs.1250 Each)                                                                          
000119  024968  049309  075330  094938  124152  152120  168992  188727  213234  235137
000215  025185  049510  075442  095902  124260  152890  169032  189388  213479  235218
000481  025385  049922  075520  095967  125356  152923  169760  189594  213931  235557
000595  025879  050162  076203  096569  126037  153299  170037  190947  213997  235691
001338  025966  050193  076488  096655  126757  153502  170081  190956  214732  235842
002409  026665  050520  077101  097306  127059  153525  170378  191181  214782  236001
002870  027063  050585  077490  097757  127432  153694  170400  191585  215113  236068
002898  027852  050969  077744  098414  128690  154235  171106  192167  215114  237193
003255  028759  051663  077900  098978  129128  154578  171350  192276  215137  238917
003882  029677  052630  078229  099647  129276  155051  171767  192376  215410  239005
005217  029739  052736  078912  099949  131536  155098  171967  192466  215778  239316
005836  029859  053294  079098  100026  132282  155555  172226  192642  215824  240022
007597  029982  053444  079319  100146  132857  155873  172888  192976  217156  240253
007633  030281  054431  079327  100878  132887  156419  173448  192978  218301  240534
008331  030506  054439  079625  102007  133221  156426  175177  193380  218345  241258
008364  031001  054783  079919  102794  133299  156531  175213  194410  218726  241527
008621  032010  054905  079926  104242  133425  156587  175218  194440  219101  241639
008623  033259  055110  080591  104971  133541  156631  175263  194820  219303  241909
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008993  036191  056457  080983  108533  134756  156959  176195  197389  220344  243123
 
file:///H|/15-12-2010%20Rs.200/15-12-10,Rs.200.txt (1 of 6)12/15/2010 4:38:40 PMfile:///H|/15-12-2010%20Rs.200/15-12-10,Rs.200.txt
 
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011801  041801  058720  082840  112079  137318  159462  178729  202688  227128  246114
012127  041900  059923  083269  112690  138567  159728  178730  202848  227398  246217
012189  042632  060116  085142  113173  139575  160156  179195  203675  227579  246315
013051  042804  060170  085256  113479  140713  160450  180200  204534  227839  246579
013256  043270  060182  086235  113556  141272  160862  180350  204715  228375  246875
014631  043564  060717  086779  115227  141342  161096  180369  205207  228530  246915
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016747  044685  064579  087561  116144  143222  161162  181285  206267  229321  247475
017148  044856  064933  088062  116188  143561  162110  182521  206837  229408  247548
017348  044908  065303  088360  116203  144740  163735  182704  207282  229672  248738
017644  044956  065865  088677  116729  145899  163822  182771  208527  229688  249235
017708  045029  066037  089897  118002  147086  163932  183047  208533  230363  249375
018006  045192  066141  090256  118321  147648  164610  183073  208686  231112  249422
018388  045250  067731  090343  118897  148427  164719  183590  208834  231350  250085
018487  045550  067963  090450  119628  149240  165826  183933  209648  231404  250175
018583  045714  068992  090505  119987  150225  166608  183997  210061  231508  250450
018688  046713  069233  090525  120373  150633  166901  184155  210431  231756  250508
019324  047178  069727  091510  120914  150662  167110  184640  211266  232263  250859
019992  047889  069995  092319  120951  150819  167216  185082  211824  232890  251751
020339  048003  070249  092765  121362  150881  167852  186662  211995  233486  252109
020798  048735  070956  092794  121404  150923  167876  186821  212321  233567  252135
020964  048764  071922  092913  121622  151197  168102  186912  212545  233805  253579
021353  048792  072214  093673  123138  151271  168176  187600  212876  233944  253608
022012  048979  072727  093674  123188  151287  168608  187650  212899  234188  253824
022377  049079  073005  093850  123654  151295  168804  188093  212985  234189  254903
023700  049188  074226  093896  123678  151587  168936  188677  213102  234948  255042
255287  281487  310261  331668  349636  371446  398122  421321  441966  471268  493623
255367  281881  310361  332511  350508  371495  398227  421674  442356  471524  494127
256056  282012  310808  332788  350553  371648  398404  422704  442779  471896  494929
256650  282023  310945  333704  351312  373579  398685  422911  442973  472168  495244
256667  282402  311153  333839  351476  373896  398961  423839  443650  472797  495814
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258815  283864  311931  335029  353294  374774  402126  424292  446163  474117  498307
 
file:///H|/15-12-2010%20Rs.200/15-12-10,Rs.200.txt (2 of 6)12/15/2010 4:38:40 PMfile:///H|/15-12-2010%20Rs.200/15-12-10,Rs.200.txt
 
258998  285441  312808  335064  353393  374924  402174  424798  447592  474187  498720
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261831  286987  313511  335825  355050  375993  402674  426591  449658  475570  501339
261883  287222  313611  336058  355122  376189  403779  426708  449707  475611  501721
262031  287300  314294  336096  355347  377417  404648  426920  450278  475951  501820
262571  288012  314679  336375  355631  378350  405248  427654  450673  476085  502539
263198  288132  314773  337226  355639  378920  405330  428478  451054  476233  502825
263210  292162  314841  337956  355697  379918  405411  429059  451233  476465  502913
264259  292204  314973  337984  355753  379935  405532  429303  451561  476548  502931
264422  292930  315486  338263  356008  380923  405756  429973  451638  476782  503416
265052  293000  316275  338606  356294  381114  406437  430414  452898  477455  505121
265206  293019  316774  338768  356312  381222  406655  430501  454864  478151  505140
265365  293588  316821  339161  356449  381301  407747  430683  455364  478262  505256
266176  295009  317337  339314  356533  382749  408928  431206  455484  478420  505356
266893  295346  317552  339546  357455  383541  409914  431328  455827  478692  506132
267044  295632  317634  339958  358435  384073  409970  431422  455921  478696  506139
267377  297108  318307  339961  358542  384133  410204  431896  455927  479149  506550
267568  297124  318406  340785  359465  384702  410530  431902  457202  479226  506612
267607  297164  319955  340929  359719  385273  410865  432185  459011  479254  506816
267804  297355  319959  340993  359848  386111  411061  432620  460033  479286  507570
270431  297637  321351  342079  360841  386141  411161  433406  460113  479520  507961
270433  297984  321479  342276  361154  387143  411251  433880  460649  480001  508109
270441  299818  321585  342320  362130  387637  411986  435289  461049  480463  508364
271294  300034  321934  342476  363435  388415  412384  435920  461127  480746  508653
272761  300893  322817  342904  363774  388639  412398  435955  461844  481001  509153
273443  300965  323203  343448  363858  391110  412987  436021  461933  481003  509909
273744  301968  323559  344458  364778  391113  413000  436105  462170  482085  510636
273831  302099  323933  344468  365373  391400  413804  436259  462655  482436  511529
274510  303674  324455  344729  365700  391749  413973  436272  463354  482664  511632
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526397  551813  569910  593433  614429  636887  664690  685206  701228  723860  754462
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534963  558367  579361  600961  619923  645792  672248  692167  710473  734516  760011
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538376  560150  582157  603230  622417  650712  673370  693278  712238  740249  762073
539154  560325  582207  603681  623088  651330  673641  693322  712954  741120  762944
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541278  560588  582714  604959  624797  652864  674792  693715  713456  743305  763678
541347  560773  582890  605763  625468  653392  674999  694270  713620  743364  763974
541622  560952  583052  605930  626416  653918  675552  695459  713736  743838  764483
542084  561105  583465  606022  626635  654265  675801  695840  713776  744069  765352
542210  561425  584007  606033  627066  654453  676055  696075  714955  745041  766698
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542913  561721  584791  607727  629082  655475  676266  696388  715287  745218  768352
543132  562194  584912  608116  629127  656435  677249  696573  715634  745492  769233
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543673  563342  585607  608994  630617  656948  677278  697345  717456  746752  770283
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770590  790104  815475  832303  849034  869943  890927  907526  932546  950969  977979
770643  791758  816014  832474  849307  870651  890960  908034  932696  951725  978142
770761  792046  816535  832843  849571  871081  890966  908611  933684  953579  978334
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773203  796468  820639  837733  855971  875355  893906  911840  936572  960499  983209
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Friday, November 26, 2010

CS610 Assignment 2



CS 610 Computer Networks
Assignment # 02
Fall 2010
                                                                             Total Marks = 20

Deadline  
Your assignment must be uploaded / submitted before or on Nov 26, 2010.

Upload Instructions
Please view the assignment submission process document provided to by the Virtual
University to upload the assignment.

Rules for Marking
Please note that your assignment will not be graded if:
·         It is submitted after due date
·         The file you uploaded does not open
·         The file you uploaded is copied from some one else or from internet
·         It is in some format other than .doc

Objective
The assignment has been designed to enable you develop:
  • Understanding about routing algorithms



Note: Material that is an exact copy from handouts or internet would be graded zero marks. Your solution should consist of the material found through different sources and written in your own wordings.


Assignment Statement:
Give detailed comparison of all routing algorithms with respect to the type of network. 


------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Note: Solve it by yourself

 CS_610 2nd
assignment solution

Question:
Give detailed comparison of all routing algorithms with respect to the type of
network.
Solution:
Routing algorithms can be defined as a mechanism that tells the router how to
process. All these algorithms are different from others regarding their design and
efficiency and type. Routing algorithms can broadly be divided into following
categories;

 
Ø Static versus dynamic
Ø Single-path versus multipath
Ø Flat versus hierarchical
Ø Host-intelligent versus router-intelligent
Ø Interadomain versus interdomain
Ø Link-state versus distance vector
 

All these algorithms have different design, different working and different
metrics to measure the best paths for routing.


Static versus dynamic 

Static algorithms are actually the tables that are created by the network
administrator before the beginning of routing; they will not be updated till an
administrator does it manually. While the dynamic routing algorithms are updated
as they find any sort of change in routing paths.

 
Single-path versus multipath
The single path routing algorithms have a single path to the destination while
multipath algorithms allow traffic to route over multiple lines in order to get more
efficiency and load balancing.


Flat versus hierarchical 

The scenarios where flat algorithm routing protocols are implemented, the
routers are just like peers to each other while in hierarchical algorithms routers
might be differentiated into backbone and non-backbone routers and so is their
functionalities.

 
Host-intelligent versus router-intelligent
Host intelligent algorithms let the source routers work involuntarily and
mindlessly, they just send packets and leave the decision on destination routers.
In router intelligent algorithm routers define their path to destination regarding
their own routing path calculations.

 
Interadomain versus interdomain
Routing algorithms that are restricted to only work within the domain are referred
as interadomain routing algorithms and if they are not restricted only within the
domains then they are interdomain algorithms.


Link-state versus distance vector
Link state algorithms, all routers send the states updating of their linked nodes to
all other nodes in the Internetwork while distance vector algorithms are able to
send only the major changes to its neighbours.



   

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