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Monday, December 27, 2010


Software Project Management
Assignment # 03
Fall 2010 
Marks: 20
Due Date   
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 January 2011.
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Question no. 1:  What do you understand by the term “Seven Tools for Quality
Management (QM)”?  Why “Seven Tools” are used the in QM?

Question no. 2: What would you understand by the role of People in Software Quality
Assurance (SQA)? Give a Comparison of SQA & the CMM?

Note: Your answer must be precise and to the point.

     Solution will be uploaded soon..



VU ID: MC090200982
Software Project Management
Assignment # 03

Question No. 1: 
What do you understand by the term “Seven Tools for Quality Management (QM)”?  Why “Seven Tools” are used the in QM?

First of all I define what quality is. The definitions of quality depend on the function of the people defining it. Clients have a hard time to defining quality but all customers don’t believe when ever they see in practically. There is no single common explanation of quality. Some people think quality as performance to standards. Others people think it as meeting the customer’s needs or satisfying the customer.
The seven tools of quality management (QM) are as bellow.

Cause and Effect Diagrams:
Cause and effect diagrams are graphic representations that recognize possible reason for particular quality problems. They are often called fishbone diagrams because they look like the bones of a fish. In diagram the head of fish is the quality problem. The diagram is draw so spine of the fish attaches the head to the probable reason of the problem. These reasons could be associated to the machines, workers, measurement, suppliers, and materials. Each of these possible causes can then have smaller bones that show specific issues that relate to each cause. Cause and effect diagrams are problem solving tools commonly used by quality control teams. Specific causes of problems can be explored through brainstorming. The development of a cause-and-effect diagram requires the team to think through all the possible causes of poor quality.

A flowchart is a structural or procedural diagram of the progression of steps involved in an operation or process. It provides a physical tool that is easy to use and understandable. In the easy word user friendly. By considering the steps involved in an operation or process, everyone develops a clear picture of how the operation works and where problems could occur.

Checklist is an inventory of general faults and the number of detect incidence of these fault. It is a simple yet successful fact judgment tool that allows the worker to collect exact information about the defects observed. It is obvious that the main problem is break material. This means that the plant needs to spotlight on this specific problem. Checklist can also be used to focus on other magnitude such as location or time. In this way we can separate the location of the particular fault and then focus on correcting the problem.

Control charts:
A control chart is very important quality control tool. These charts are used to assess whether a process is operating within expected relation to some deliberate value such as weight, width, or volume. When the production process is operating within prospect we says that all is in control. To assess whether or not a process is in control, we regularly measure the changeable of interest and plot it on a control chart. The chart has a line down the centre indicating the average value of the variable we are measuring. Above and below the centre line are two lines, called the upper control limit (UCL) and the lower control limit (LCL). As long as the observed values fall within the upper and lower control limits, the process is in control and there is no difficulty with quality. When a measured observation falls outside of these limits, there is a problem.

Scatter Diagrams:
Scatter diagrams are graphs that show how two uneven are associated to one another. They are mainly useful in sense the amount of correlation or the amount of linear association between two variables. Two variables could also be correlated negatively that a raise in one of the variables is linked with a reduce in the other. The better the quantity of correlation, the more linear is the observations in the scatter diagram. On the other side the more scattered the observations in the diagram, the less correlation exists between the variables.

Pareto Analysis:
Pareto analysis is a method used to recognize quality problems based on their level of importance. The logic behind Pareto analysis is that only a few quality problems are important. The system was named after Vilfredo Pareto. In 19th century Italian economist who concludes that only a small percentage of people controlled most of the wealth. This theory called the 80–20 rule and has been extended too many parts. In quality management the reason behind Pareto’s principle is that most quality problems are an effect of only a few reasons. The scam is to recognize these reasons. Command based on the percentage of defects each has caused. Percentage of defects can be calculate from the count and placed in a chart.

A histogram is a plan that shows the occurrence allocation of observed standards of a variable. We can see from the plan what type of distribution a particular variable displays, such as whether it has a normal distribution and whether the distribution is symmetrical.

Use of Quality Tools:
QM places a great compact of liabilities on all workers. If employees are to recognize and correct quality problems they need good training. They need to realize how to calculate quality by using a variety of quality control tools how to interpret findings and how to correct problems. Quality tools can be used to estimate the suitability of product quality and monitor product quality from individual suppliers.

Question No. 2:
What would you understand by the role of People in Software Quality Assurance (SQA)? Give a Comparison of SQA & the CMM?

             SQA is not concerned managers and all team members only. It also impact from which is not directly involved in it. But the all SQA team members are also same important in there places also. So it is very broader impact element.

Top Management
The top management is not directly involved in SQA but its very important group of peoples which is biggest stack holder also. So top management is always in touch the SQA team and make sure that all member of SQA is right focused to achieve SQA.
Top management is also providing full support and good managerial functions apply.

Software Configuration Manger (SCM)
In the good controlled software development environment the SCM identifying / tracking and controlling the project. In the other sense the SCM is the accountant of the software project which audit and manages the accounts. SCM also the responsible of the all projects backups. The most important duty of the SCM is to create the Users and provide the custom access rights.

Its fact that developers takes non direct role in SQA but it does not mean that developers not working with SQA. Software organize is not about testing but guarantee that the process of software progress is according the industry standard. SQA is not component of the improvement team because they are the supervision groups that make sure every step in software development are according to plan.

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